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Glossary

 

āshram

1. A place where a seeker can remain engrossed in spiritual practice through spiritual discipline, 2 An abode of a Saint or a Holy man, 3. Stages of life

Abhang

A hymn

Abhishēk

Consecration by ritualistic bathing with water, milk etc.

ābhūshaṇ

Ornament(s)

Abhyangasnān

A Holy bath after applying oil, ubṭan to the whole body

āchaman

Sipping water from the cupped palm thrice, while uttering the first three of the twenty-four names of Srīvishṇu and releasing the water into a plate from the palm while uttering the fourth name

āchār

Conduct conforming to Shruti and Smruti, general conduct. (Also, custom, tradition)

Āchārdharma

Code of righteous conduct

Āchārsamhitā

Compilation of a text on Āchār

Āchārya

A spiritual guide or teacher (especially one who teaches the students after their thread ceremony, and instructs them in Vēdās, laws of sacrifice and Dharma)

Adharma

Unrighteousness

Adharmācharaṇ

Unrighteous conduct

Adharmācharaṇ̣ī

One with unrighteous conduct

Ādhibhoutik (Physical)

Related mainly to body; for example hunger/thirst, snake bite, wars or fights with other living beings

Ādhidaivik (Divine)

Generated by Prakriti, for example extreme weather, earthquake, excessive rain or lack of it

Adhik mahinā / mās

Intercalary month of the Hindu lunar calendar

Adhyāpan

Imparting knowledge, teaching, instruction

Adhyātma

1. Spirituality, 2. Means pertaining to the soul

Adhyātma-chētanā

Spiritual vitality

Ādhyātmik (Spiritual)

Related to the Mental plane, for example anger, greed, infatuation, recurring doubts, infidelity etc.

Adhyayan

Study

Ādi

1. Beginning, 2. First, 3. Primitive

Ādi Shankarāchārya

The first Shankarāchārya - He was a great philosopher, mystic and poet from Bharat. He founded the Advaita Vēdānt (Non-dualism) School of thought.

Ādishaiva

A hereditary priest and teacher of the South Bharatiya Shaiva Siddhant tradition

Ādi-shakti, Ādi-māyā

Primal energy

Āditya

Sun Deity

Ādnyā-chakra

Sixth centre or chakra in the spiritual energy system; located in the mid-brow region in the subtle-body

Advait

Non-duality

Advait siddhānt or Advait-vād

Doctrine of non-duality

Aghor, aghori

An order of mendicants, who roam around with a skull in one hand and burning coals in the other; also, a sect that worships Deity Shiva

Agni

Fire

Agnidēvatā

Deity of Fire

Agnihotra

Perpetual maintenance of the Agni or sacred fire by offering oblations; also, the ritual performed twice a day, at sunset and sunrise

Agnihotrīs

Those who keep the sacred fire burning perpetually; also those who perform the ritual twice a day, at sunset and sunrise

Aham Brahmāsmi

‘I am Brahman’. One of the four important statements from the Upanishads

Ahimsā

1. Non-violence, 2. Refraining from causing harm to others physically, mentally or emotionally

Aishwarya

1. Prosperity, 2. Wealth

Aitarēyopanishad

A part of the Holy scripture Aitarēya-Araṇyak

Ajapājap

Spontaneous and continuous chanting

Akarma

An act, action which does not give rise to destiny

Akarma-karma

An act, action which despite being a karma bestows the benefits of akarma

Ākāsh

Absolute Ether, sky or space The subtlest of Pancha-mahābhūtās (Five Cosmic Principles)

Ākāshavāṇī

Divine message

Aksharbrahman

Brahman Principle in the alphabet

Aksharyoga

Path of God-realisation through letters

Akshatā

Unbroken rice grains, usually smeared with kumkum and used in ritualistic worship

Akshouhiṇī

This was an ancient battle formation that consisted of 21,870 chariots; 21,870 elephants; 65,610 cavalry and 109,350 infantry, as per the Mahābhārat [Ādi Parva 2.15-23]. The ratio is 1 chariot : 1 elephant : 3 cavalry : 5 infantry soldiers. In each of these large number groups [65,610 etc.], the digits add up to 18)

Alakshmī

Misfortune

Alankār

Ornament(s)

Amāvasyā

Last day of the Krushṇapaksha (Dark fortnight) of Hindu lunar fortnight, the new-moon day

Amrut

Divine nectar which immortalises the one who drinks it

Anāhat-chakra

The fourth centre in the spiritual energy flow system, located in the region of the heart in the subtle-body

Anāhat-nāda

An experience of the Ākāshtattva (Absolute Ether Principle) in the form of a continuous Divine sound similar to the blowing of a conch, ringing of temple bells etc.

Anāmay

The stage where there is no bhavarog

Ānand

Bliss

Ānandāvasthā

Blissful state

Ānhik

Daily rituals in the morning

Annamay-kosha

Sheath of the physical body

Annapūrṇā

Deity which provides food and sustains prosperity

Antahakaraṇ

The inner sense organs consisting of the conscious mind, sub-conscious mind, intellect and ego

Āntarkumbhak

Internal kumbhak

Antarman

Subconscious mind

Antaryāmī

One who knows the inner self

Anushtḥān

A religious performance, undertaking

Āpa

Absolute Water. One of the five Cosmic Principles (Pancha-mahābhūtās)

Aparānhakāl

Afternoon

Apasavya

Shifting the sacred thread from the left to the right shoulder

Āpatattva

Absolute Water Principle

Apourushēya

One that has not originated from man

Apsarā

1. Beautiful and/or supernatural women from superior subtle regions

āpṭā

Mountain ebony tree

Ārādhyadēvatā

Deity of worship

Āratī

A ritual of waving a lit lamp in front of a Deity and Saints, accompanied by singing of hymns

Arghyadān

(Ritual) An oblation of water to God

Ark

Essence or Distillate, One of the names of the Sun Deity, which is associated with Tēj (Fire Principle) and the sense of sight (Vision)

Artha

Material gain

āsan

1. Posture, 2. Seat

Asat

Non-truth, that is, Māyā (The Great Illusion)

Āshāḍha

Fourth month in the Hindu lunar almanac

Ashṭadēvatā

Eight superior Deities

Ashṭa-gandha

A mixture of eight fragrant herbs (chandan, kēsar, bhīmsēnī kapūr, heenā, āgar, tulsī, bēl, durvā) used for Deity worship

Ashṭalokpāl

The eight presiding Deities (of the subordinate Deities)

Ashṭamī

Eighth day in a Hindu lunar fortnight

Ashṭāngāsan

Bending the elbows, place the palms on the ground and move the entire body towards the ground. Touch the forehead, chest, palms, knees and the toes, that is, eight organs to the ground.

Ashṭasāttvik-bhāv

Eight manifestations of spiritual emotion evoked in a seeker which are – tears of joy, trembling of voice, shivering, goose pimples, mask-like face, stillness of the body, sweating, expression of emotion on the face
ashvattha Holy fig tree

Āshwin

Seventh month in the Hindu lunar almanac

Asmitā

Ego, ‘I’, ‘mine’, Identity

Atharvavēda

Third of the four most sacred Hindu scriptures

Atithipūjan, Manushyayadnya

Ceremonious welcome of the guest

ātmā

Soul

ātma-bal

Power of the soul

ātma-bhāv

Spiritual emotion related to soul

ātma-dnyān

Knowledge that 'I am the self-realised soul'

ātma-dnyānī

Self-realised soul

ātma-jyoti

Flame-like appearance of the soul

ātmānand

Bliss from self-realisation

ātma-nivēdan

Conversation with God through an emotion of surrender

ātmānubhūti

Spiritual experience of the soul

ātma-sākshātkār

Self-realisation

ātma-shakti

Energy of the soul

ātma-swarūp

Soul form

ātmatattva

Soul Principle

Audumbar

Cluster fig tree

Aukshaṇ

Ritual of waving a lit lamp in front of a Saint or a person

Avadhūt

1. Another Name of Deity Datta, 2. An Ascetic

Avatār

1. An Incarnation of God, 2. God coming down to earth in any life-form

Avidyā

Ignorance

Āyurvēda

One of the four upa-Vēdās of Atharvavēda. It teaches that good health depends on the balance of three constituents of the body – vāta (Wind), pitta (Bile) and kapha (Phlegm)

Aahirkumbhak

Holding the breath after exhalation

Bahiryāg

External worship

Bali

King of asurs and Pātāl

Bālkrushṇa

Infant Krushṇa

Bālsanskārvarg

Moral education class for children

Bandha

Bandha refers to blocking the flow of spiritual energy through a specific nāḍī (Channel) by performing a yogic posture

Baṭu

Boy whose thread ceremony is being performed

Bēl

Aegle marmelos tree

Bhādrapad

Sixth month in the Hindu lunar almanac

Bhagat

One who resolves worldly problems with spiritual remedies

Bhagawān

God, the possessor of the six attributes of strength, fame, knowledge, wealth, beauty and renunciation

Bhagirathi

Another Name of the Holy river Ganga, named after Bhagiratha because of whose penance She descended onto the earth at Gangotri

Bhagwadārthakarma

A synonym of Karmayoga

Bhairav

Another Name of Deity Shiva, but especially an inferior manifestation or form

Bhajan

Devotional song

Bhakta

A devotee

Bhaktarāj

King of devotion, the title bestowed upon H. H. Bhaktaraj Maharaj (the Guru of H.H. Dr. Athavale), by His Guru, H.H. Anantanand Saish

Bhakti

Devotion

Bhaktibhāv

Spiritual emotion of devotion

Bhaktimārg

Path of devotion

Bhaktiyoga

Path of Devotion

Bhanḍārā

Festival of serving food as a spiritual ritual

Bharat

Hindustan, India

Bharatiya

1. One who has realised that spiritual evolution is the purpose of life and works towards that goal, 2. Indian

Bhāv

Spiritual emotion

Bhavānī

Goddess Pārvatī in a specific form

Bhāvārthadīpikā

A sublime commentary on the Shrīmadbhagwadgītā by Saint Dnyānēshwar

Bhāv-ūrjā

Energy of spiritual emotion

Bhog

Experiencing destiny, worldly pleasures

Bhūdēvī

Deity of the earth

Bhūgarbha-laharī

Waves emitting from core of the earth

Bhujangāsan

Lift the body from the waist upwards. Placing the waist between the palms, bend the body backwards above the waist. Keeping the gaze fixed forward, gradually move it backwards. Touch the thighs and legs to the ground. The backbone should be in a semi-circular shape.

Bhūlok

Earth region

Bhūmidēvatā

Deity of the earth

Bhūtbali

Sacrifice to spirits

Bhūtyadnya

One of the five Mahāyadnyās where food is offered to the universal being, that is the Brahman Principle or to the world of the ghost or demons

Bhuvarlok

Nether region

Bīja

1. Seed, 2. Original point, 3. The source, 4. The letter forming the essential part of the mantra of a Deity

Bījākshar / Bījamantra

An alphabet or group of alphabets generating spiritual energy

Bimba-pratibimba

Image and its reflection

Bimba-pratibimba nyāy

Subtle-law of action and reaction ?

Brahmā

Supreme God in the Hindu Trinity - Brahmā, Vishṇu amd Mahēsh

Brahmā

Deity Brahmā

Brahmachārī

Celibate

Brahmacharya

Celibacy

Brahmacharyāshram

The first among the four stages of life – the stage of celibacy

Brahmadnyān

Knowledge of Brahman

Brahmālankār

Ornaments from spiritual practice

Brahmalok

Abode of Deity Brahmā

Brāhmamuhūrt

An auspicious time at dawn between the fourth ghaṭikā from night and the second ghaṭikā before sunrise ideal for spiritual practice

Brahman

God in His aspect as the Creator of the universe

Brāhmaṇ

1. One who knows Brahman, 2. One who belongs to the first of the four varṇas (Classes), studies scriptures and imparts knowledge to the society

Brahmānand

Ultimate Bliss

Brāhmaṇ-bhojan

Offering meals to Brāhmaṇs

Brahmānḍa

Cosmos or universe

Brahmānḍa-manḍal

Cosmos

Brahmarākshas

A haughty, disdainful spirit of a Brāhmaṇ

Brahmarandhra

Opening in the spiritual energy system, located on the crown, in the subtle-body

Brahmaras

Nectar of Bliss (the experience of Brahman)

Brahmarshi

A Brahmarshi is the penultimate expert on religion and spiritual knowledge, a Sage endowed with the knowledge of Brahman. Below Him are the Maharshīs (Great Rushīs)

Brahmastithi

State of union with God

Brahmāstra

Weapon acquired by appeasing Deity Brahmā through penance

Brahmatēj

Radiance of a Brāhmaṇ

Brahmayadnya

Study of the Vēdās and performing tarpaṇ for the sake of Deities and Sages

Bruhatstotraratnākar

A Holy text

Buddhi-pramāṇyavādī

Rationalists, who want an intellectual explanation for everything

Buddhiyoga

Yoga of Intellect

Bukkā

Black powder which attracts the Deity's Principle, used in ritualistic worship

Chaitanya

Divine consciousness

Chaitanyāvasthā

State of experiencing Divine consciousness

Chaitra

First month in the Hindu lunar almanac

Chakra

1. Wheel, 2. Usually the word chakra is meant to denote a centre in the body through which the spiritual energy flows

Chakra-vyuha

Labyrinth of military array

Chāmunḍā

Destroyer form of Shrī Durgā, who killed the demons Chanḍa and Munḍa

Chanakya

A famous master of statecraft in ancient Bharat. He is believed to have lived in 4th century B.C. and was a great statesman and strategist.

Chānḍāl

1. A scavenger, 2. A wicked person

Chandan

Sandalwood

Chandranāḍī

The Moon channel, one of the main channels of the spiritual energy system located to the left of the body and carrying soothing energy

Chapātī

Bharatiya bread of wheat, Roti

Chārvāk

A Bharatiya philosopher who advocated that one should lead a luxurious life without worrying about the future, because once destroyed, the body will not be regenerated

Chaturang danḍāsan

Gradually extend one leg backwards, next to the other. Keep the knees straight. Balance the entire body on the palms and toes. The heel, waist and head should be in a straight line. Fix the gaze on the ground at a distance from the hands.

Chaturdashī

Fourteenth day in a Hindu lunar fortnight

Chaturthī

Fourth day in a Hindu lunar fortnight

Chāturvarṇa

The system of four classes

Chētanā

1. That aspect of Divine consciousness that governs the functioning of the mind and body, 2. Sentience

Chētanā-shakti

Sentient energy

Chidānand

Intellectual bliss, thought and joy together

Chintāmaṇi

A mythical gem capable of fulfilling any wish

Chit-shakti

The word ‘Chit’ means both, Absolute knowledge and Chaitanya and Shakti means Divine Energy. Hence, ‘Chit-shakti’ means Shakti which has Absolute Knowledge and Chaitanya.

Chitta

Subconscious mind

Chitta-shakti

Energy of the subconscious mind

Choul-karma

The ritual of keeping a tuft of hair on the rear of the head

Chuṛīdār

A Bharatiya attire worn by women

Cowrie

Shell of Cypraea moneta, used as currency in certain parts of the world in the earlier times

ḍafali

A hand-held drum made from the hide of an animal and shaped like a ring

Daiva

Destiny

Dakshiṇā

Offering in cash or kind, especially one given to a Brāhmaṇ after a ritual

Dakshiṇāyan

Southerly declination of the sun

ḍamarū

An hourglass shaped drum associated with Deity Shiva

Dān

1. An offering, 2. Donation,

Danḍawat

Offering obeisance by completely prostrating on the ground with stretched and folded hands facing the ground

Darbha

A type of grass used in rituals involving sacrificial fires and rituals for the departed souls such as shrāddha

Darshan

Sight, seeing, vision / viewing

Darshanārthī

One having darshan

Dāsbodha

A Holy text by Samarth Ramdas Swami

Dashamī

Tenth day in a Hindu lunar fortnight

Dāsmārutī

Form of Māruti (Hanumān) as a servitor of His Master (Shrirām)

Dāsya

1. One of the aspects of Bhakti-sādhanā, 2. To render service with an attitude of being a servitor of God

Dāsya-bhakti

Devotion unto God as a servitor

Datta Jayantī

The full moon day of the month of Mārgashīrsha according to Hindu lunar almanac, the day is celebrated as the birthday of Deity Datta

Deepmālā

1. An array of lamps,

Dēha

1. The body, 2. Spiritually there are four types of bodies : (a). Sthūla-dēha or the physical body, (b). Sūkshma-dēha or the mental body, (c). Kāraṇa-dēha or the causal body or intellect, (d). Mahākāraṇa-dēha or the supracausal body or subtle ego.

dēha mandal

All the koshās

Dēhabuddhi

Body-awareness

Dēha-tyāg

Renouncing the body

Dēshkāl

Place and time

Dēv

Deity

Dēvālay

Temple

Dēvarushi

Sage of the Deities, that is, Sage Nārad, son of Deity Brahmā

Dēvatā

Male / Female Deity

Dēvī

Female Deity

Dēvruṇa

Debt unto the Deities

Dēvyadnya

Perpetual maintenance of the sacred fire

Dhananjay-vāyu

One of the five sub-vital energies (Upa-prāṇas) which controls decomposition after death

Dhanwantari

An Incarnation of Shrīvishṇu, physician of Gods, and God of Ayurvēdic medicines.

Dhāraṇā

Depending upon usage - concentration, conception, perception, retentive power, understanding, impression

Dharma

Righteousness, Religion

Dharmācharaṇ

Abiding by Dharma (Righteousness) in daily life

Dharmadān

Teaching on Dharma

Dharmadnyān

Knowledge on Dharma

Dharmadrohi

1. One who opposes Dharma, 2. A heretic, 3. Traitor to Dharma

Dharma-granth

Holy scriptures

Dharmajāgruti

Awakening about Dharma

Dharma-kartavya

Duty as defined by Dharma

Dharmakārya

Service unto Dharma

Dharmapālan

Abiding by Dharma

Dharmaprasār

Propagation of Dharma

Dharmarāj

A title given to the eldest Pandav : Yudhishthir

Dharmarājya

Kingdom based on Dharma

Dharmasatsang

Spiritual discourse to impart scientific education on various subjects like Dharma, spiritual science, spiritual practice, religious rituals etc.

Dharmashāstra

A genre of Sanskrut Holy texts and refers to the shāstra or the science pertaining to Hindu Dharma

Dharma-yuddha

Battle for Dharma

Dhoop

Frankincense

Dhotī

A rectangular piece of unstitched cloth, usually around 4-5 metres long, wrapped around the waist and the legs and knotted at the waist by Hindus
dhusar smoky

Dhūtavastra

Any clean and washed article of clothing

Dnyān

1. Knowledge, 2. Spiritual knowledge

Dnyānēshwar

From 1275 to 1297, foremost amongst poet Saints of Maharashtra (a state in Bharat). Dnyānēshwarī, His commentary in verse form on the Shrīmadbhagawadgītā, is acknowledged as one of the world's greatest spiritual works.

Dnyānī

1. Knowledgeable, 2. Wise, 3. A seeker possessing spiritual knowledge, that is, one who is self-realised, 4. A scholar
dnyānottar kārya Mission after attaining self-realisation

Dnyān-sanchhinna-sanshay

One whose doubts are entirely cleared because of possessing knowledge about the Truth

Dnyān-shakti

Energy of knowledge

Dnyānyoga

Path of Knowledge

Durāgraha

Obstinate persistence for an immoral cause

Durgā

The Primal Mother, Goddess Pārvatī – wife of Deity Shiva

Durvā

A fragrant grass used in the ritualistic worship of Shrī Gaṇēsh

Dvait

1. Duality 2. In Spirituality - duality between God and the self

Dwādashī

Twelfth day in a Hindu lunar fortnight

Dwāparyug

The third Era in the cycle of four Eras since the origin of the universe

Dwēsh

Hatred

Dwij

One whose upanayan sanskār or the thread ceremony has been performed

Dwitīyā

Second day in the Hindu lunar fortnight

Dyuti

Light

Ēkādashī

The eleventh day of the waxing or the waning moon

ēkānt-pūjā

Ritualistic worship performed in solitude

ēkāratī

Oil or ghee lamp with a single wick

Eknath

Saint from Paithan, Maharashtra, Bharat, who lived in the period 1533 and 1599

ēkpād

prasarṇāsan Gradually bending at the knees, extend one leg backwards. Touch the palms to the ground. Bend the other leg at the knee and place the foot between the palms. Rest the chest on the thigh and fix the gaze upwards.

Gaṇapati

1. Bestower of knowledge, 2. The Deity that wards off all obstacles and one who is able to transform the nādabhāshā (Language of sound and spoken by human beings) into prakāshabhāshā (Language of light and spoken by Deities) and vice versa

Gaṇapati-Atharvashīrsha / Gaṇapatyatharvashīrsha

Sanskrut prayer to Shrī Gaṇēsh, seeking His protection and blessings

Gaṇapati-pūjan

Worshipping Shrī Gaṇapati

Gaṇās

Assistants of Deities

Gandha

Smell, odour, sandalwood paste

Gandha-akshatā

Akshatā (Unbroken rice grains) smeared with gandha (Sandalwood paste)

Gandha-kaṇa

Scented particles

Gandharva

Celestial musician, in the category of inferior Deities

Gaṇēsh Chaturthī

Birth of Shrī Gaṇēsh according to the Hindu lunar almanac on Bhādrapad Shukla Chaturthī, that is, the fourth day of the bright fortnight of Bhādrapad

Gaṇēsh-panchāyatan

A group of five Deities in which Shrī Gaṇēsh is the chief Deity

Ganga

A Holy Bharatiya river emerging from the crown of Deity Shiva

Gangotri

The one which provides a flow of sāttvik waves laden with the Shiva Principle; also the origin of River Ganga

Gaṇik

Slave

Gaṇika

Courtesan, maid

Garbā

A dance form, prevalent in Gujarat, played during Navarātrī

Garbhādhān

A ritual performed before conception for the purpose of a good progeny

Garbhāgār

Anteroom

Garbha-gruha / gābhārā

Sanctum sanctorum of a temple

Garuḍa-dhwaj

Flag with emblem of Garuḍa (Eagle), Shrīvishṇu's Divine carrier, hoisted on a temple

Gāyatrī-mantra

A sacred verse from the Vēdās, to be recited mentally by a Brāhmaṇ during the daily ritual of sandhyā , a mantra of the Sun Deity, hence related to the Tējtattva

Ghāgar phunkaṇē

Blowing air in the earthen pot while standing, dancing in front of ‘Mahālakshmī’, is considered part of worship and is specific to Maharashtra, Bharat

Ghāgarā

A type of parakar with lot of pleats to be worn as outer garment

Ghaṭikā

An ancient Bharatiya measure of time, 1 ghaṭikā = 24 minutes

Ghee

Clarified butter

Gomūtra

Urine of a cow of Bharatiya breed

Gondhal

1. ‘Gondhal’ is the dramatic narration of mythical stories, praise of heroes or narration of folk legends. All these forms part of a ritual dedicated to different divinities. This Marathi folk theatre in the form of worship is performed exclusively by a group of men as part of rituals after ceremonies like marriage specific to Maharashtra, Bharat, 2. In the mental state of confusion

Gondhali

Worshippers who perform the ritual of Gondhal

Gopa

Cowherd

Gopī / gopikā

Female cowherd

Gopī-bhāv

Spiritual emotion akin to that of the gopīs who were supreme devotees of Shrīkrushṇa

Gopīchandan

1. Soil from Dwarka, 2. White clay

Gotra

Lineage

Grāmadēvatā

Village Deity, the protector of residents of that village

Granth

Holy text

Gruhasthāshram

The second among the four stages of life, namely, the stage of a married householder

Guṇa

1. Component (The three spiritual components in the universe are Sattva, Raja and Tama), 2. Quality, virtue

Guṇatīt

Beyond the three components of Sattva, Raja and Tama

Gurav

A priest in the Shiva temple

Guru

1. Spiritual master, 2. Spiritual preceptor, 3. Name of Bruhaspati (Jupiter)

Guru’s Ashram

Guru’s hermitage

Gurudhāraṇā

The retentive power of the Guru (Likely to change with usage)

Gurukrupā

Grace of the Guru

Gurukrupāyoga

The Path of Guru's grace, which incorporates 8 steps

Gurukul

A residential school system prevalent in ancient Bharat, where teaching on all areas of life, including spiritual practice was done by Gurus or Sages

Gurumantra

The mantra given by a Guru upon initiation

Gurupourṇimā

Full moon day of the month of Āshāḍha, also called Vyās Pourṇima after Sage Vyās who is considered ādya, meaning the first Guru

Guru-prāpti

Being blessed with a Guru

Gurupūjan

Ritualistic worship of the Guru

Gurutattva

Guru Principle, unmanifest form of the Guru (God) who guides seekers

Gurutvākarshan

Gravitational force

Haḍal

Female goblin

Haldī

Turmeric

Haldī-kumkum

Turmeric powder-vermillion powder

Hansavarṇa

Those Liberated

Hanumān

Deity Hanumān

Hanumān Jayantī

Birthday of Hanumān according to the Hindu lunar almanac

Har

Another Name of Deity Shiva

Harī

Another Name of Shrīvishṇu

Harī Om Tat Sat

Sacred words by which God is often invoked

Harī-Har

‘Vishṇu-Shiva’, a particular form of Deity consisting of Vishṇu and Shiva, conjoined

Haṭhayoga

Path of Deliberate Rigour, adopted to discipline the body and mind to enhance their tolerance

Haṭhayogī

A practitioner of Haṭhayoga

Havan

Offering of oblations in the fire

Hindi

National language of Bharat

Hindu

In Sanskrut, the word Hindu is broken up as hin + du. 'Hin' means to remove and 'du' means darkness. In other words, anyone who makes efforts to remove the darkness of spiritual ignorance (that is, a seeker), is a Hindu.

Hindu māvalās

A Marāthi term of endearment used for the warrior Marathas who were supporters of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

Hindu Panchāng

Hindu almanac, based on the lunar cycle

Hiraṇyagarbha

The 'Golden womb' poetically rendered as the source of the creation of the universe

Hom

Fire-sacrifice performed to appease Deities

Ichhā

Desire, will

Ichhā-shakti

Energy of will

Iḍā

The Moon channel, one of the main channels of the spiritual energy system located to the left of the body and carrying soothing energy

Ikshawāku

The first king of the Sun dynasty

Indra

King of Deities

Ishṭadēvatā

1. Benevolent Deity, 2. The Deity that one feels closest to

Īshwar

God

Īshwar-anugraha

God’s grace

Īshwarēchhā

God's wish

Jagadambā

Mother of the universe, Name of Dēvī

Jagannāth

God of the universe

Jāgrut Dēvālay

Temple where the divinity in the Idol is awakened; for example, the Devālays at the site of the twelve Jyotirlingās

Jāgrut-sthān

Area where the divinity in the Deity is in an 'awakened' state

Jai

Hail

Jaighosh

Proclamation, hailing

Jaladēvatā

Deity of water

Janaka-dhāraṇā

Which is dissolving and flowing in nature

Janalok

Fifth of the seven subtle higher regions of the universe

Janārdan

Another Name of Shrīvishṇu

Janēu, jānavē

Sacred thread

Janma-Hindu

Hindu by birth

Janmāshṭamī

Birthday of Shrīkrushṇa according to the Hindu lunar almanac

Japa

Chanting

Japamālā

A string of beads used to keep a count of the chanting

Jaṭharāgni

gastric heat , Subtle-fire in the stomach

Jātkarma

A ritual at birth

Jāval

The ritual of the first haircut

Jīva

Embodied soul

Jīvabhāv

Emotion of a jīva

Jīvadashā

State of the embodied soul

Jīvanmukta

Liberated when still embodied

Jīvātmā

Embodied soul undertaking spiritual practice

Jyēshṭha

1. Elder, 2. Third month in the Hindu lunar almanac

Jyotirlinga

Powerful Divine lingās (Sacred symbols of Deity Shiva) situated at 12 places in Bharat

Kailāsh

Heavenly abode of Deity Shiva

Kājal

Collyrium, soot (An ointment prepared from soot obtained by burning of lamp and processed by adding substances like camphor, used for eyes. Has both cosmetic and medicinal value.)

Kāl

Time

Kālī

Destroyer form of Shrī Durgādēvī

Kaliyug

Era of strife

Kalkī

The tenth Incarnation of Shrīvishṇu in the form of a warrior, which is expected to appear at the end of Kaliyug

kalpa

Time immemorial measured in cycles, comprises of four yugs, it is one day and night for Deity Brahmā

Kalpataru

Wish-fulfilling tree

Kāma

Desire or sexual desire, third pursuit of life

Kāmadhēnu

Divine wish-fulfilling cow

Kamanḍalu

Water pot generally used by Ascetics

Kāmashāstra

Science underlying sexual desire

Kāmasūtra

A Holy text on the art of love-making

Kāmya-karma

Karma performed with expectation of fruit

Kāmyasnān

A bath under religious acts, with an intention of fulfilling some desire

Kanṭhamaṇi

A bead woven in a thread, worn around neck at the throat level

Kapha

Phlegm

Karadarshan

Morning ritual of looking with concentration at the palms before getting out of the bed

kāraṇdēha

Causal body

Karma

1. An act, 2. Action which gives rise to destiny

Karmakānḍa

Spiritual practice of rites, rituals and observances performed at the physical level

Karmaphala

Fruit of a karma

Karmaphalanyāy

Cause and effect of our karma

Karma-sanyās

Renunciation of karma

Karmayoga

Path of Action

Karṇī

Black magic

Karpūr-āratī

Camphor-āratī

Kartā

Doer

Kārtik

Eighth month in the Hindu lunar almanac

Kārtikēya

Elder brother of Shrī Gaṇēsh, son of Deity Shiva and Pārvatī

Kēdārnāth

Another Name of Deity Shiva; also a place of pilgrimage for Hindus

Kētu

Pluto

Kēvaḍā

Screwpine

Khaḍag

A weapon which is thorny and broad at one end and narrow at the other

Khādī

Hand-woven cotton cloth

Khaṇa

A blouse piece bordered with silver or gold threadwork offered to the Goddess or a married lady

Kheer

A sweet made from milk and rice / wheat

Khus

Root of Andropogon muricatus grass; Vertiveria zizaniodies

Kinnar

A celestial musician having a face of horse, physiological male who adopts a feminine gender identity.

Kīrtan

1. Narration of the glory of God through stories, punctuated with devotional songs, 2. Devotional discourses

Kīrtankār

One who performs kīrtans

Ko-ham

Who am I ?'

Kosha

A sheath or covering : There are the five koshās, as described by the Vēdānt philosophy

Kourav

The hundred sons of Kuru, and cousins of the Pandavs

Kriyā

Physical performance of a deed

Kriyamāṇa-karma

Wilful actions, that is, according to one's own free will

Kriyā-shakti

Energy of action

Krupā

Grace, mercy, favour, love, compassion, forgiveness, blessings (Use appropriately)

Krushṇa

The eighth Incarnation of Shrīvishṇu

Krushṇa-leelā

Divine play of Shrīkrushṇa

Krutadnyatā-bhāv

Spiritual emotion of gratitude

Kruti

1. Deed, 2. Method or an act of performing karma

Kshātrabhāv

Spiritual emotion of a warrior

Kshātradharma

sādhanā Spiritual practice of protecting seekers and destroying evildoers

Kshātrageet

Songs which inspire the warrior attitude in seekers

Kshātratēj

Radiance of a Kshatriya

Kshātraveer

A seeker who undertakes Kshātradharma sādhanā – the spiritual practice of protecting seekers and destroying evildoers

Kshātravrutti

1. Attitude of a warrior, 2. Fighting spirit

Kshatriya

One who belongs to the second of the four varnās (Classes), namely the warrior class

Kshētrapāladēvatā

Guardian Deities of territories

Kshudradēvatā

Subordinate Deity, inferior Deity

Kubēr

Deity of treasury

Kula

1. Family, 2. Mūlādhār-chakra, the first centre in the spiritual energy system (Kunḍalini)

Kulāchār

1. Family traditions, 2. Religious rituals that have been followed over generations in a family

Kuladēvatā

Family Deity

Kuladharma

Duties of the family, passed on from one generation to the next, to be followed religiously

Kumār

Boy or young man

Kumārī / kumārikā

A young girl, an unmarried girl, a virgin; when the reference is to a girl whose pūjā is to be performed as a part of a ritual she is necessarily a virgin who has not attained puberty. Represented as 'Ms.'

Kumārikā-pūjān

Ritualistic worship of a kumārikā

Kumbhak

Stage of holding the breath during Prāṇāyam (Controlled breathing)

Kumkumārchan

A ritual of offering saffron to a Dēvī (Goddess)

Kunḍalinī

Dormant spiritual energy in the subtle-body. It is coiled like a serpent and consists of one central channel, the Sushumnānāḍī and two channels on its sides, Iḍā/Chandranāḍī on the left and Pingalā/Sūryanāḍī on the right with six centres (Chakrās) namely Mūlādhār, Swādhishṭhān, Maṇipur, Anāhat, Vishuddha and Ādnyā

Kunḍalinīyoga

Path of activation of spiritual energy

Kurtā-pyjāmā

Long knee-length top and loose pants; a Bharatiya dress

Laghurudra

Eleven Ekādashīs amount to one Laghurudra

laharī

1. A group of subtler-waves of the Principles of Deities, 2. Waves

Lakshmī

1. Deity of wealth, fortune, prosperity, 2. Divine Energy of Shrīvishṇu, worshipped as the bestower of opulence

Leelā

Divine play

Linga-dēha

Subtle-body

Lok

Region (meaning, a subtle region)

Loksangraha

Integration, unification of people

Madarthakarma

A synonym of Karmayoga

Mādhukari

Cooked food given as alms

Madhyamā

A mode of speech where chanting occurs automatically. It is so named as it is the intermediate stage between Vaikhari and Pashyantī modes of speech

Mādhyandin or mādhyānhakāl

Noon

Māgha

Eleventh month in the Hindu lunar almanac

Mahābhāg

Divine reproductive organs

Mahābhārat

A Hindu scripture written by Sage Vyās, which depicts the epic battle between the Pandavs who always abided by Dharma and the Kouravs, who rode on the path of adharma

Mahādēv

Another Name of Deity Shiva

Mahākāraṇdēha

Supracausal body

Mahālung

Citron fruit

Mahāmārg

Divine Path, highway

Mahāmrutyunjay

mantra A mantra from the Rugvēda, invoking Deity Shiva, recited to avert death

Mahant

A religiously superior person, the chief of a monastery

Mahāprasād

Prasād served in the form of a meal, normally after a major ritualistic worship

Mahārāj

Sovereign, a respectful way of addressing religious scholars, Saints, kings etc. in Bharat

Maharlok

The fourth higher subtle region of the universe

Maharshi

Great Seer or Rushi

Mahārudra

Eleven Laghurudrās amount to one Mahārudra

Mahā-shūnyāvasthā

Super-zero state

Mahat

Large

Mahātattva

The Great Principle

Mahātmā

Great soul

Mahāveer

Mighty warrior

Mahāyoni

Divine birth passage

Mahēsh

Another Name of Deity Shiva

Makarsankrāntī

A festival observed on 15th January each year; the date changes every eighty years

Mālā

Rosary

Manaha-shakti

Energy of the mind

Manan

1. Contemplation, 2. Meditation

Manḍal

Circle or protective sheath

Manḍap-dēvatā

Deity of the manḍap / panḍal

Manḍap-dēvatā-pratishthā

Installation of the Deity of manḍap / panḍal

Mangalsūtra

A typical ornament worn by a married Hindu woman; it is a symbol of marriage and worn by the woman until her husband's death

Māng-tikā

An ornament worn on the forehead

Maṇipur-chakra

Third chakra (Centre) in the spiritual energy system located in the region of the navel in the subtle-body

Manodēha

Mental body

Manomay-kosha

Mental sheath, one of the five sheaths as described by the Vēdānta philosophy

Manonmanī

The superconscious state according to Shrī Shankaracharya

Mantra

A syllable, word or words representing spiritual reality or an aspect of God uttered to protect oneself or to achieve a specific goal
Incantation when being recited by a māntrik

Mantrapushpānjali

The act of offering flowers while reciting specific mantrās

Mantravidyā

Knowledge of mantrās

Mantrayoga

Self-realisation through chanting of mantrās

Māntrik

1. A practitioner of mantra, 2. A subtle-sorcerer

Manu

A great legislator and a Saint, the son of Brahmā or personification of Brahmā Himself, He set laws for Hindus through His Holy text, the Manusmruti

Manusmruti

A Hindu Holy text written by Sage Manu underlining the code of conduct

Mārak

Destroyer (Antonym : tārak - saviour)

Mārak-shakti

Destroyer energy

Mārgshīrsha

Ninth month in the Hindu lunar almanac

Māruti

Hanumān, Son of Pavan – Deity of the wind

Māruti-stotra

Spiritual verse in Marathi in praise of Hanumān

Mātrukā

A type of female Deity; twenty-seven in all

Mātrukāpūjan

Worship of the Mātrukā Deities

Māyā

The Great Illusion

Māyāvi

māntrik Illusory, deceitful, unreal, untrue

Mēdhā

Spiritual intellect or subtlest state of intellect

Meenākshī

Principle of multiplication of Creation. One of the five Principle Deities (Panchadēvatā).

Mimānsāshāstra

Science of Analysis

Modak

Special sweet balls made of jaggery and coconut offered to Shrī Gaṇapati as Naivēdya

Moksha

Final Liberation

Mokshapurīs

Places that confer Moksha

Moun

1. A state of being quite, silence, 2. Taciturnity, silence

Mounyoga

Self-realisation through silence, that is, control over the speech, body and finally the mind

Mrutāvasthā

Corpse-like state

Mrutyunjay

One who has conquered death

Mudrā

1. A posture used for directing the flow of spiritual energy into the Sushumnānāḍī

Muhūrt

Auspicious time

Mukti

Salvation or Liberation (from the bondage of birth and death)

Mūlādhār-chakra

First chakra (Centre) in the spiritual energy system located in the region between the anus and the base of the genitals in the subtle-body

Mūl-mantra

The primal mantra
Mumukshū

A seeker with intense desire for attaining God-realisation

Mumukshūtva

Desire for God-realisation

Munḍan

Shaving off the head

Mutt, maṭh, muṭh

1. A religious educational institute, 2. A residence of Ascetics

Nādabrahma

Brahman Principle in the sound

Nāda-shakti

Sound energy

Nādayoga

Meditation on the inner subtle sound, as a means to God-realisation

Nāḍī

Energy channel

Nāḍī-bandha

Blocking the flow of energy through a nāḍī (Energy channel) by performing a specific posture

Naishkarmya

Detachment from karma

Naivēdya

Food offered to the Deity as part of ritualistic worship

Nakshatrās

Lunar asterisms

Nāmabrahma

Concept that the God's Name itself is God

Nāmadhārak

One who chants the Name

Nāmadhun

Chanting to the tune of devotional music

Namaha

I bow unto you

Nāmajapa

Chanting, chanting the Name of the Deity

Nāmakaraṇa

Naming ceremony

Namaskār-mudrā

Both the hands joined and held at the level of the Ānāhat-chakra, but a little away from the body

Nāmasmaraṇa

Chanting

Namastē (Namaskār)

A respectful greeting that is accompanied by a gesture of joining the palms with the fingertips pointing upwards and held close to the chest

Nārad sūtra

Sūtra written by Sage Nārad on the qualities of Bhakti (Devotion) and Bhaktiyoga

Nāradprakīrṇak

A Holy text

Nāradpurāṇa

A Hindu mythological scripture composed by Sage Nārad

Nārāyaṇa

Another Name of Shrīvishṇu

Nārāyaṇa Nāgbali

A rite to provide momentum to the ancestor’s souls

Natha

Nose ring

Nātha

sect A sect in Hindu Dharma, in which the Guru is accorded a higher status than God Himself. The Yogīs of this sect consider Deity Shiva as the foremost Guru and Matsyēndra, a form of Shrīvishṇu, as His first disciple

Navarātra

The period of nine continuous days and nights, particularly the period between Pratipadā (First day) and Navamī (Ninth day) of the bright half of the month of Chaitra and Āshwin, devoted to worship of Shrī Durgādēvī

Neem

Azadirachta Indica - A tree with bitter fruits and leaves and having medicinal properties

Nēmdharma

Discipline

Nijdhyās

Intense yearning

Nirahankārī

Egoless

Nirākār

Without form

Nirānand

Lacking in Bliss

Nirānjan

A five-petalled metal lamp-dish with an attached conical stand to be set before an Idol

Nirbīj (or Nirvikalp)

Samādhi The highest superconscious state, the state of advait (Non-duality)

Nirguṇ

Non-materialised

Nirmālya

Withered flowers and leaves, which have been offered earlier to a Deity

Nirukta

Dictionary of difficult words in Vēdās

Nishkām

Without expectations

Nishkām Karmayogī

Selfless seeker practising Karmayoga

Nishkām-bhakti / Nishkām-sādhanā

Spiritual practice performed without expectations of worldly gains

Nishkām-bhāv

Spiritual emotion devoid of expectation

Nishkām-prēmī

Unconditional lover

Nīti

1. Morality, 2. Ethics

Nītishāstra

1. Subject dealing with moral values 2. Code of ethics

Nītivettā

Scholars of nīti

Nitya-naimittīk-karma

Day-to-day and occasional karma

Nivrutti

Cessation of participation in worldly affairs

Niyat

Fixed, determined, definite

Nīyati

Fate

Niyat-karma

Daily work

Nyāyashāstra

Law

oṭī

(in Marathi) Ritual of offering a sāṛī and/or a blouse piece to a Goddess or to a married lady, a ritual in Maharashtra (Bharat)

ovalē

One that is in a general state which is not absolutely pure. Generally used with sovale like sovalē -ovalē

Palāsh

Flame tree

Palī

(in Marathi) An offering spoon used in ritualistic worship

Pallū

Free end of a sāṛī, normally worn over the shoulder

Panchā

A smaller hand-woven version of dhotī

Pancha-ārati

Lamp with five wicks

Panchadēvatā

The five Principal Deities – Prajāpati, Brahmā, Shiva, Shrīvishṇu and Meenākshī

Panchadnyānēndriya

Five subtle sense organs

Panchagavya

A mixture of cow’s milk, curd, ghee, cow’s urine and cow dung

Panchakarmēndriya

Five subtle motor organs

Panchakhādya

Dish prepared out of five different substances, preferably dry fruits

Panchākshar

Having five letters, according to the Sanskrut alphabet

Panchamahāsatīs

Five great chaste women

Panchamahāyadnya

Five great sacrificial fires

Panchamī

Fifth day of either Hindu lunar half-month

Panchāmrut

A mixture of milk, curd, honey, sugar and pure ghee

Panchāng

Hindu almanac

Panchapātri

Vessel used for worship

Panchaprāṇ

Five vital energies

Panchaprāṇātmak ūrjā

Energy in the form of five vital Principles

Panchasūnā

Inadvertent killing of living organisms during the course of earning a livelihood is referred to as ‘panchasūnā’ in the scriptures

Panchatattva or Panchamahābhūtās

The five Cosmic Principles – Pruthvī, Āpa, Tēj, Vāyu and Ākāsh

Panchavaṭi

1. Garden of five sacred trees, 2. Garden where Sītā had stayed

Panchopachārpūjā

Ritualistic worship involving five steps

Pandav

Five sons of King Pandu – Yudhisthir, Bhim, Arjun, Nakul, Sahadev

Panḍit

A Scholar

Pānḍurang

Another Name of Shrī Vitṭhal, an Incarnation of Shrīvishṇu

Pāṇini

A great Bharatiya Seer, The Sage who wrote the authoritative guide to Sanskrut grammar

Pāp

1. Sin, 2. Demerit

Parā

Mode of speech of a seer where one experiences non-duality with the Name

Parābhakti

Most superior form of devotion

Parabrahman

Supreme God, according to the Vēdānt philosophy

Parakar

Petticoat from waist to ankle used under the sāṛ̣ī

Paramātmā

Supreme Soul / God

Paramēshwar

Supreme God

Parāshakti

Supreme Energy

Parashurām

Sixth Incarnation of Shrīvishṇu, who was a perfect blend of Brahmatēj and Kshātratēj

Parātpar

Guru Supreme Guru, Guru of the highest (90% to 100%) spiritual level

Pārāyaṇa

Periodic, repeated reading of a Holy text

Parēchhā

Other's wish

Pariṇaya

A state where a jīva is able to love God is termed as pariṇaya. In this state, the jīva’s love is sakām (With expectations).

Parvakāl

Synonym for sandhikāl

Pārvatī

Divine Energy and consort of Deity Shiva

Pāsh

A noose which is a weapon of Shrī Gaṇēsh

Pashyantī

Chanting the Name of God in Pashyantī mode of speech is akin to that of Seers who have knowledge of the past, present and future. This mode of chanting occurs after attaining a spiritual level of 70%

Pātāl

Hell region

Pavitraks

Subtle most particles containing Chaitanya (Divine consciousness)

Pāyas

A sweet made out of milk and rice

Peeṭhas

Seats of worship / faith

Phālgun

Twelfth or last month in Hindu lunar almanac

Pinḍa

1. Subtle-body, 2. The human body as a replica of the macrocosm

Pinḍa-dān

Offering rice balls during shrāddha ritual

Pinḍī

Deity Shiva’s sacred symbol

Pingalā

Sun channel

Pīpal

Bo tree

Pishāch

Spirit of a deceased person

Pitāmbar

Yellow silk dhotī

Pitru-paksha

The dark fortnight in the Hindu almanac month of Bhādrapad, when some rituals are performed for the ancestors

Pitruruṇa

Debt unto the ancestors

Pitrushāhī

Paternal governance - as by the head of a joint family

Pitru-yadnya

Ritual for the departed ancestors

Pourṇimā

Last day of the Shuklapaksha (Bright fortnight) of Hindu lunar fortnight, full-moon day

Poush

Tenth month in the Hindu lunar almanac

Pradakshiṇā

Circumambulation

Prādnyā-shakti

Latent energy of pure intellect

Pradosh

The period of 72 minutes (3 ghaṭikās) before sunset on the 13th day of the bright and dark fortnight of every Hindu lunar month

Prajāpati

Principle of Creationar month

kāshabhāshā

Language of lightar month

kaṭdin

Day of public acclamationar month

kop

Pr>kop of Deities is wrath, Pr>kop of nature is fury

Pr>kruti

Māyā or Great Illusion according to the Sānkhya philosophy / Primeval Nature according to the Vēdānt philosophy / Basic nature or personality. It is the primeval nature created by Supreme Brahman, comprising of the three basic components, that is, Triguṇās

Pr>kruti-pravruttī

Inherent nature or propensity

Pr>lay

Dissolution of the universe

Pramān

A Certification, proof

Prāṇa

One of the five vital energies involved in the activity of inhalation

Prāṇadān

Saving a life

Prāṇa-dēha

Vital body

Prāṇamay-kosha

Vital energy sheath

Prāṇapratishṭhā

Consecration

Prāṇa-shakti

Vital energy (Additional information : The vital life sustaining energy of both the individual body and the universe.)

Praṇav

Om

Prāṇa-vāyu

1. One of the five vital energies, 2. Oxygen

Prāṇāyām

1. Regulation of breath and control of the body’s vital energies, 2. A discipline of Yoga

Prārabdha-karma

Karma which is to be undergone in a particular birth

Prārthanā

Prayer

Prasād

Holy sacrament

Prasthāntrayi

Essence of the Vēdās

Prātaha-kāl

Dawn

Prātaha-sandhyopāsanā

Ritual of sandhyā performed in the morning

Prātar-vaishvadēv

Daily oblation to God performed at dawn, through the Fire Deity, before the meals

Pr>tipadā

First day in a Hindu lunar fortnight

Pr>tyāhār

To retreat (In Yoga - withdrawal of the sense organs from the sense objects)

Pravachan

Spiritual discourse

Pravrutti

Active in worldly life (opposite of nivrutti), inclined towards participation in worldly affairs

Prēm / prēmbhāv

Love

Prīti

Unconditional love, spiritual love devoid of expectations

Pruthvitattva

Absolute Earth Principle

Pūjā

Ritualistic worship

Punsāvan

A ritual performed to beget a son

Puṇyāhavāchan

Recitation of specific mantrās for success of a ceremony

Pūrak

1. Deep inhalation, 2. Complementary

Puraḷ

Rashes, pimple, small swelling, pustule

Puraṇ (in Marathi)

A sweet made from boiled gram lentil and jaggery

Purāṇa

The eighteen sacred Holy texts compiled by Sage Vyās

Purashcharaṇ

Repeated chanting

Pūrī

A type of fried, unleavened Bharatiya bread

Purṇapada

Absoluteness

Purṇatva

Awareness of the Absoluteness

Purṇāvatār

Absolute Incarnation

Purush

Absolute Being

Purushārtha

Basic pursuits of life

Purushtatva

God Principle

Rāhu

Neptune

Raja

1. One of the three basic components in the universe, signified by activity, passion

Rājarshi

1. A royal Sage, 2. One who adopts a Sage's way of life despite being a king

Rājasik

Raja-predominant

Rājasūya

Yadnya Yadnya to be performed by a paramount ruler

Rājayoga

Path of God-realisation, by following eight steps of spiritual practice described by Sage Patanjali

Rajoguṇa

Raja component (Only for the dictionary)

Raktachandan

Red sandalwood

Rāmāyaṇ

A great Hindu Holy epic written by Sage Valmiki, that depicts the history and life of Shrīrām

Rāmnavamī

Navamī is the ninth day of bright fortnight of the month of Chaitra, also the birthday of Shrīrām

Rāmrājya

Rule of Shrīrām, which also means the rule of righteousness

Rāmrakshā-stotra

A hymn in Sanskrut praising Shrīrām, and seeking His protection

Rangolī

Holy designs made on the ground from white crushed powder

Rēchak

Long exhalation

Riddhi

Wealth, prosperity

Rudra

Rudra (Deity Shiva) is supposed to have sprung from Brahmā’s forehead and to have afterwards separated into half male and half female, the former portion again separating into 11 Rudrās

Rudragaṇās

Attendants of Rudra

Rudrāksha

Seeds obtained from the rudrāksha tree found in the Him>layas, associated with Deity Shiva

Rudrāksha-mālā

A rosary made with rudrāksha seeds

Rugvēda

First of the four most sacred Hindu scriptures

Rukmiṇi

Consort or Divine Energy of Shrīkrushṇa

Rushi

Sage

Sabhāmandap

Hall in a temple

Sadēha-mukti

Liberation during embodiment

Sadguru

A spiritual master or Guru at a spiritual level of at least 85%

Sādhak

Seeker

Sādhanā

Spiritual practice

Sādhu

Ascetic

Saguṇ

Materialised

Sahajabhāv

Being at a God-realised level at all times

Sahajāvasthā, sahajastithī

Natural state of communion with God

Sahajayoga

Natural state of communion with God

Sahasrār-chakra

Notional opening situated at the crown of the head, which leads to realisation of Brahman and Shiv

Sahastranām

A thousand Names

Sakām

With expectations

Sakām sādhanā

Spiritual practice performed with expectations of worldly gains

Sakhā

Friend

Sakhya

Friendship

Sākshātkār

1. Enlightenment, 2. Self-realisation

Sakshibhāv

Spiritual emotion of being in an observer state

Salwār

Legwear in a chuṛīdār

Samādhi

1. A superconscious state of meditative union with the Absolute God Principle, 2. A tomb

Samaī (in Marathi)

A metal lamp on a pedestal with several wicks (kept near Idols of Deities)

Samashṭi

For the sake of the society

Samashṭi sādhanā

Spiritual practice for the spread of Spirituality

Samatvayoga

A synonym of Karmayoga

Samhitā Holy

texts or verses systematically arranged in the form of poetic verses

Sampatkāl

Favourable time or Era

Sampuṭ

Sampuṭ are some specific words used in a mantra. These can be used at the start, middle or end of the mantra

Samyak

Absolute

Sānandāvasthā

Super-conscious state described by Sage Patanjalī

Sanatan

1. Eternal, 2. That which is always new, full of Chaitanya (Divine consciousness), 3. That which never ages

Sanatan Dharma

God’s quality itself is Dharma. Codes of Dharma of God cannot vary; ultimately there is only one Code of Dharma, and that is the Sanatan Dharma. It is eternal, without a beginning or an end.

Sanatkumār

Celestial Sages

Sanchit

The accumulated give-and-take-account, which is created as a result of one's wilful karma

Sandhikāl

Transition period

Sandhyā

Ritualistic worship of the Sun Deity to be performed daily at sunrise, noon and sunset by all those whose thread ceremony is performed. It is accompanied by chanting of the Gāyatrī mantra and meditation.

Sankalpa

Resolve or intent

Sankalpa-shakti

Energy of resolve

Sānkhya

One of the six schools of Bharatiya philosophy

Sankhyāshāstra

Science of numerology

Sānkhyayoga

Yoga of Knowledge

Sanskār

Subconscious impression; Vēdic rituals to create subconscious impressions

Sanskār-kēndra

Impression centre

Sanskrut

An ancient Bharatiya language of Divine discourse. This is also considered to be the language of the Gods

Sanstha

Organisation

sanyāsāshram

The last among the four stages of life, namely, the stage of a renunciant

Saptachiranjīv

Seven eternal souls

Saptadēvatā

The seven Deities – Shrī Gaṇesh, Shiva, Shrīrām, Hanumān, Datta, Shrī Durgā and Shrīkrushṇa

Saptalok

Seven higher cosmic regions

Saptapadi

Act of the groom of taking the bride over seven heaps of rice made on the northern side of the sacrificial fire

Saraswatī

Divine Energy of Deity Brahmā, Goddess of learning, speech and eloquence

Sāṛī

A traditional attire of Bharatiya women

Sāshṭāng namaskār

Paying obeisance prostrating, using eight parts of the body namely the feet, knees, hands, chest and forehead

Sat

1. Absolute Truth, 2. To remain in ‘Sat’ is to remain in Divine thoughts

Satsang

Company of the God Principle

Satsēvā

Service unto the Absolute Truth, that is, God Principle

Sattva

One of the three components in the universe, signified by purity and knowledge

Sāttvik

Sattva-predominant

Sāttviktā

Purity

Satyanārāyaṇa

A form of Shrīvishṇu

Satyayug

The first in the cycle of four Eras since the origin of the universe

Sāyujyamukti

The fourth of the four states into which Mukti (Liberation from the bondage of birth and death) is distinguished, the other three are 1. Salok, 2. Sārashti, 3. Saroop, 4. Sāyujya

Sēvā

Service unto Absolute Truth

Shabdabrahman

Brahmā Principle in the words

Shabda-shakti

Energy associated with a word

Shaḍaripu

The six foes or defects of the embodied soul: attachment, pride, anger, envy, passion and greed

Shaiva, Shaivites

Name of a sect who are followers of Deity Shiva

Shākta sect

A sect that worships Shakti

Shakti

Divine Energy

Shaktipātyoga

Self-realisation by transmission of spiritual energy from the Guru

Shaktipeeth

Seat of Divine Energy

Shāligrām

Stone emblem of Shrīvishṇu

Shālunkā

Base of the linga, also known as lingavēdī

Shambhu

Another Name of Deity Shiva

Shamī

Bharatiya mesquite tree

Shani

Saturn

Shankar

Another Name of Deity Shiva

Shānti

1. Serenity, 2. Peace

Shānti-karma

An appeasement ritual

Shāntipāṭha

A ritual in which mantrās are recited to obtain peace

Sharaṇāgat-bhāv

Spiritual emotion of complete surrender

Shasṭhī

Sixty

Shasṭhī-shānti vidhi

A ritual on occasion of completion of sixty years

Shāstrakār

Authors of scriptures

Shēhnāī

An aero-phonic instrument, usually played on auspicious occasions

Shēndūr

An orange powder used in rituals

Shēsha

Divine serpent on which the earth rests

Shēvantī

Chrysanthemum

Shikhā

Tuft

Shiv

God Principle

Shiva

1.The ‘Destroyer’ in the trinity of Hindu Deities, the other two are Brahmā and Shrīvishṇu, 2. Principle of Dissolution

Shivadoot

Messenger(s) of Deity Shiva

Shivāksha

Deity Shiva’s eye

Shivalinga

Deity Shiva's sacred symbol; Divine Phallus

Shivalok

Deity Shiva’s abode

Shivapinḍī

Deity Shiva's sacred symbol

Shivātmā

God-realised soul

Shivdashā

The state of being one with Shiv (God Principle)

Shloka

Specifically denotes a metered and often rhymed poetic verse or phrase. Shlokas are usually part of stotrās which are prayers to the Deities.

Shoḍashopachārpūjan

Ritualistic worship involving sixteen specific substances

Shraddhā

Faith

Shrāddha

Special rituals performed for the departed ancestors

Shravaṇ

Listening

Shrāvaṇ

Fifth month in the Hindu lunar almanac

Shrī

1. Mark of Divine glory with respect to a Saint or God with all His powers, 2. Shakti (Divine Energy), beauty, virtues etc, 3. Respectful way of addressing a Deity

Shrī Bruhannārdīyapurāṇa

A Holy text

Shrī Dāsbodha

A Holy text by Samartha Ramdas Swami

Shrī Gurucharitra

Composition on the life of Shrīpad Shrīvallabh and Nrusinh Saraswatī, the Incarnations of Datta - the Guru of all Gurus

Shrī Gurutattva

The Guru {rinciple

Shrī Purushsūkta

Hymns in Sanskrut, compiled in praise of the Purush (Supreme God)

Shrī Shankarāchārya

One of the greatest philosopher Sages of Bharat, the exponent of the Advait Vēdānt, founder of the four muṭhs in Bharat

Shrīmadbhagwadgitā

Sacred text of the Hindus, which explains different paths to salvation. Narrated by Shrīkrushṇa to Arjun on the battlefield of Mahābhārat

Shrīmadbhāgwat

A Holy text written by Sage Vyās, which includes stories of different Incarnations of God, the life and teachings of Shrīkrushṇa, Saints and their disciples. Name of one of the eighteen Purāṇas.

Shrī-yantra

A type of yantra, that is, a figure consisting of triangles within triangles, which has the ability to generate energy

Shrotrāchaman

Touching the right ear with the right hand and reciting the twenty-four Names of Shrīvishṇu

Shrutīs and Smrutīs

Vēdic texts

Shubham karoti

A prayer

Shūdra

The class which performs physical work

Shukra

Venus

Shūnyāvasthā

Zero-state

Siddhavastra

Cloth which is ready

Siddhi

Supernatural power, acquired through spiritual practice

Sīmāntonayan

Ritual of parting the wife’s hair, performed during pregnancy

Sindur

Vermillion

Sītā

An icon of chastity and devotion in the Hindu Dharma. She is the revered wife of Shrīrām.

Skandpurāṇ

A Holy text

Smrutīs

Compilation of traditions in Hindu Dharma

So-ham

I am That (God)'. [The oneness with the supreme consciousness is contemplated through the breathing.]

Solah sanskār

The sixteen religious rituals that an individual undergoes from birth till marriage, that is, at the 16 major life-events with a view to progressing towards God.

Soubhāgyālankār

A medium or ornament, which reminds women of their pātivr>tya (Conjugal fidelity)

Soubhāgyawati,

suwāsini, suhāsini A married woman whose husband is still alive

Sovalē

1. Beyond the state of saguṇ, 2. A clean, washed, silk or cotton dhotī to be worn during pūjā

Soyar

Impurity caused by the birth of a family member

Sthāndēvatā

When a boundary is constructed on a piece of land, it is known as 'sthān' (Place) and the presiding Deity of that sthān is called Sthāndēvatā

Sthūladēha

The gross body

Stotra

A hymn of praise. These hymns praise aspects of the Divine, such as Devi, Deity Shiva, or Shrīvishṇu.

Sudarshan-chakra

Weapon used by Shrīkrushṇā and Shrī Durgā. Of all weapons, the Sudarshanchakra is the only one, which is constantly in motion

Sudarshanyag

A ritual

Sūkta

Vēdic hymn

Sūrya

Sun

Sūryanāḍi

The sun channel

Sūryanamaskār

It is a posture/exercise in Yoga. Obeisance to the Deity Sun

Sushumnānāḍī

The central channel of the spiritual energy flow system, which extends from the base of the spine to the top of the head

Sutak

Impurity caused by the death of a family member

Sūtak

Impurity caused by the death of a family member

Sūtra

1. A channel, 2. Sacred thread, 3. Note, 4. Aphorism

Swabhāvdharma

Temperament

Swadharma

One’s own Dharma

Swadharma-karma

Karma as per Dharma

Swādhishṭhān-chakra

Second chakra (centre) in the spiritual energy system located in the region of the genitals in the subtle-body

Swāhā

'I offer' – mantra recited while offering oblations

Swami

1. An address of reverence for a religious man, 2. A monk

Swarga

Heaven. The third region of the seven subtle positive regions, where one experiences only happiness

Swāstik

An auspicious mark, which represents the Principle of Divine Energy in the form of Shrī Lakshmī

Swayambhu

Self-materialised

Swēchhā

One's own wish

Tāḍāsan

Raise the arms backwards without bending the elbows, with hands still in the Namaskār posture. With the head between the arms, bend the waist backwards a little. Fix the gaze upwards

Tālbrahman

Brahman Principle in the rhythm

Tama

One of the three components in the universe, signified by inertia and ignorance

Tāmasik

Tama-predominant

Tāmbūl

Betel leaves with betelnut, lime, cardamoms etc.

Tāmhan+ (in Marathi)

Round, shelving metal dish

Tānḍavanrutya

Cosmic dance of Deity Shiva

Tantra

A branch of the Vēdās, a Path of spiritual practice

Tāntrik

1. One who practises the science of Tantra, 2. People who appease negative energies as part of their spiritual practice, 3. Technical

Tapascharyā

Austerities

Tapolok

Sixth of the seven subtle higher regions of the universe

Tārak

Saviour (Antonym : mārak – destroyer)

Tarpaṇa

Offering water to deceased ancestors

Tattva

Principle

Tēj

Absolute Fire Principle

Tilak

A mark of saffron or sandalwood paste worn on the forehead

Tilak

A vertical mark made on the forehead with substances such as kumkum

Til-tarpaṇa

Offering sesame seeds (til) and water

Tīrtha

Sacred liquid

Tithi

A lunar day

Topī

A Bharatiya cap used especially during rituals

Trātak

Method of meditation that involves concentrating (Fixed gazing) on a single point such as a small object, black dot or a candle flame

Trāṭak

1. Staring at an object as a yogic exercise, 2. Spiritual practice of achieving a thoughtless state of mind by concentrating on an object

Trayodashī

Thirteenth day in a Hindu lunar fortnight

Trētāyug

The second in the cycle of four Eras since the origin of the universe

Triguṇ

The three basic components of the human body - Sattva, Raja and Tama

Triguṇ̣ātīt

The state beyond triguṇās (Three spiritual components)

Trilok

The three regions – Earth, Heaven, Nether region

Tripunḍra

Three lines drawn horizontally on the forehead with bhasma

Tripuṭi

Triad of doer of the karma, the karma and the act of performing the karma that are inter-related

Trishūl

A trident; three-spiked weapon, associated with Deity Shiva

Trutīyā

Third day in a Hindu lunar fortnight

Tulsī

Holy basil plant

Tulsī-vrundāvan

A small rectangular structure in which the tulsī (Holy basil plant) is grown

Turyāvasthā

Fourth state beyond waking, sleep and dream

Tyāg

Sacrifice; sacrifice unto the Absolute Truth

Udabatti

Incense-stick

Udakshānti

Ritual performed to purify a premises

Udān

One of the five vital energies, involved in the activity of exhalation and speech

Unmani

Thoughtless state

Upanayan

The ritual of thread ceremony

Upanishad

These are a class of philosophical writings attached to the Brāhman section of Vēdās; their aim is exposition of the secret meaning of the Vēdās and are regarded as the source of Vēdānt philosophiy.

Upa-prāṇ

Subordinate vital energy

Uparṇē

A shawl or a small single cloth worn loosely over the shoulders

Upāsanā-kānḍa

Spiritual practice done with the mind

Upāsyadēvatā

Deity of worship

Upavās

Fast as Vowed religious observance

Upavastra

1. Additional cloth, 2. Secondary cloth

ūrdhvapunḍra

One or more vertical lines drawn on the forehead with either sandalwood paste or Gopichandan

Uṭaṇē, ubṭan

Fragrant herbal powder, which is applied to the body before bath

Uttānāsan

Bending forward gradually, move the hands towards the ground. Then, bending at the waist but remaining standing, touch the palms to the ground on either side of the feet. Without bending the knees, try to touch the forehead to the knees

Uttarāyaṇ

Six-month period between Makar Sankranti (around January 15) and Karka Sankranti (around July 14), when the sun travels towards the north on the celestial sphere

Vaidhruti-yog

Name of one of the 27 auspicious times that is active during sunrise

Vaidik

Well-versed in one of the four Vēdās

Vaikhari

Mode of speech of an average individual, totally devoid of Bliss

Vaikunṭha

Abode of Shrīvishṇu

Vairāgya

Detachment

Vaishākha

Second month in the Hindu lunar almanac

Vaishṇav

A sect that worships Shrīvishṇu

Vaishya

One who belongs to the third of the four varṇās (Classes) and carries on some trade

Vajra

Divine weapon of Indra, made from bones of Sage Dadhīchi

Vākdēvī

Goddess of speech

Vālmīki

A Sage who was a great Sanskrut poet and author of Rāmāyaṇa

Vāmakukshi

A nap taken for 24 minutes by lying on the left side after lunch

Vānaprasthāshram

Third stage among the four stages of life, retired householder

Vāṇī

Chanting in the Pashyantī mode of speech

Vārkarī

A sect in the Hindu Dharma who worship Shrī Vitṭthal

Varṇa

Class

Varṇāshram

Four varṇās and four stages of life

Varṇāshramdharma-pravartak

One who promotes Dharma according to the system of varṇa (Class)

Varṇāshramvyavasthā

System of classes and stages of life

Varuṇ

Deity of water/rain

Vāsanāmay

kosha Sheath of desire

Vasishṭha

A great Sage and Guru of Shrīrām who practised the path of Devotion

Vāstu

Premises

Vāstudēvatā or Vāstupurush

Presiding Deity of a premises

Vāstushānti

Ceremony / ritual done at the site or foundation of a house

Vāstushāstra

Science of studying a premises

Vāstushuddhi

Spiritual purification of a premises

Vasūs

1. Celestial beings, 2. Deities of directions

Vāta, pitta and kapha

These three doshās in Ayurvēdic practice have particular qualities or attributes which characterise their effects on the human body

Vātāvaraṇ

Environment

Vāyu

Air

Vāyumand)al

Atmosphere, environment as per the usage

Vāyutattva

Absolute Air Principle

Vēdānt

Having complete knowledge of the Vēdas

Vēdāntī

Practitioners of Vēdās

Vēdās

The most sacred Hindu scriptures, revealed directly by God

Vēdic period

The period when the famous Hindu scriptures, the Vēdās were documented

Veermāruti

Form of Deity Māruti, as a warrior

Vētāl

The word Vētāl is created from vaitāl, meaning one who makes even a severe aberration dance to His tune

Vibhūti

Holy ash

Vichārmanḍal

Thought sheath

Vidēha-Moksha

Final Liberation sans the body

Vidhinishēdha

Precepts and prohibitions

Vidyā

1. Knowledge, 2. Spiritual knowledge

Vinay

Humility

Vishṇu

Sustainer in the trinity of Hindu Deities, the other two are Brahmā and Deity Shiva

Vishṇulok

Abode of Shrīvishṇu

Vishṇu-panchāyatan

A group of five Deities in which Shrīvishṇu is the chief Deity

Vishuddha-chakra

Fifth centre (Chakra) in the spiritual energy system located in the neck in the subtle-body

Vishwakarmā

Architect of the Deities

Vishwāmitra

A Bharatiya warrior who became a great Sage with His intense penance

Vitṭhal

The famous and much worshipped Deity, a form of Shrīvishṇu, in the temple at Pandharpur, Maharashtra

Vivāh

Marriage

Vivēk

Ability to discriminate betweenright and wrong

Vrat

Vowed religious observance

Vyāghramukh

Through the ages, tigers have been depicted as sentinels at the main entrances to temples. Hence, a visage of a tiger is seen commonly present at entrances to temples. This is known as a vyāghramukh.

Vyākulbhāv

Emotion of yearning

Vyān

One of the five vital energies, involved in the voluntary and involuntary movements of the body

Vyās

Maharshi Founder of the Guru-disciple tradition

Vyashṭi

Individual

Vyashṭi sādhanā

Individual spiritual practice that benefits only the seeker undertaking it

Yadnya

Ritual of sacrificial fires

Yadnyakunḍa

Pit where yadnya is performed

Yadnyārthakarma

Karma for a yadnya

Yadnyopavit (Janēu)

Sacred thread

Yāga

Fire-sacrifice

Yajurvēda

Second of the Vēdās related to sacrifices

Yaksha

The name of a broad class of nature-spirits

Yama

1. The practice of the five moral virtues, that is, non-violence, truthfulness, celibacy, non-stealing and non-desirous, 2. Abstinence from vices

Yamalok

Region of Yama

Yamarāj

Deity of Death

Yantra

1. A device/shape which represents a Deity, 2. Symbolic representation of aspects of divinity, 3. Mechanical device, 4. A device/shape used by a subtle-sorcerer to store negative energy in order to trouble a seeker / individual

Yatī

Ascetic

Yoga

1. Union, 2. Spiritually, it means union with God

Yogabhrashṭa

One who has deviated from the path of Yoga

Yoganidrā

Yogic sleep, a state of conscious deep sleep for extreme relaxation and subtler spiritual exploration

Yogāruḍh

Performing a karma with no attachment to the fruit of that karma

Yogasanyastakarmī

One who performs karma and yet remains detached from them

Yogīs

Those who have reached the state of union with God (Brahman), by following Yoga

Yojan(s)

Scale to measure distance

Yonī

Birth passage

Yudhhakarma

Duty in war

Yug

Era

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